Inequality in the Military


    "The Crown's subjects in the Indies, observing that the authorities never reward their services, refuse to serve Your Majesty.  That is why those kingdoms are defective in military training, and nobody fulfils his duty at the time of enemy invasion.  For they claim that rewards are not distributed equitably and therefore that they are not obliged to fight..."  -Gabriel Fernandez de Villalobos



    The Creoles and Peninsulares were equal under the law, but in practice this policy failed.  In the military, the Peninsulares ascended through the ranks with much greater speed than the Creoles.  Once the Creoles realized their people were always passed up for the promotion, both their drive to support the Crown and to die for their country lessened (Dominguez, 40).  Usually fighting in the military is a bonding experience, but in this case, it created further divisions among the Creoles and Peninsulares:  One group advanced through the ranks to become officers, while their Creole counterparts were left behind to serve in the infantry.


    Dr. Alonso de Guzman proposed that there should be easier access to military careers for Creoles, and within those ranks, they should have the opportunity for regular promotion.  Dr. Guzman's efforts went unrequited and Creole skills and achievements continued to be passed up and go unrecognized.  Ignoring Creole talents and abilities happened in every aspect of life, not just the military (Humphreys, 253-254).  


"A Creole's Resentment"     Bourbon Reforms     Peninsulares in Government